Nanotechnology application in agriculture has been increasing over the last years and constitutes a valuable tool to reach the goal of sustainable food production worldwide. A wide array of nanomaterials has been used to develop strategies of delivery of bioactive compounds aimed to boost the production and the protection of crops. The controlled delivery of molecules from different sources including pesticides, fertilizers, DNA/RNA and proteins opens a field of vast opportunities to utilize nanovehicles in plants. However its massive use is still held back for the limited understanding of their way of action, as they may cause either growth promoting effects or cytotoxicity depending on application dose. The interlinkages of nanomaterials with plant, soil and also, holobiont systems are fundamental for interpreting their behavior in each complex ecosystem. In this review we summarize recent advances in the field, focusing in the uptake and translocation mechanisms and the omics studies that allow us to integrate data and provide insight on the nature of soil‐plant‐nanoparticle interactions.
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